Amphora dating

This meant that not one of the individual components in the bitumen sample--and there are tens of thousands of them--escaped their attention.They also determined the elemental composition of the constituents.Bitumen is a form of petroleum found in natural deposits. The word 'mummy', for example, derives from the Persian 'mum', or 'bitumen', because this substance was used in embalming.The Greeks used bitumen in construction, medicine, and warfare--it is possible that the legendary 'Greek fire' was based on bitumen.A closer look Distinguishing the numerous peaks in the mass spectra of bitumen from one another is a challenge.To do this, the researchers utilised the advanced ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry techniques developed at the laboratory, which allowed them to distinguish molecules whose masses differ only by a fraction of that of an electron.the gradual introduction of additional oxygen into the sample.This means that older samples contain more oxygen atoms.

If the age of the bitumen sample from the amphora is indeed close to 2,500 years, this implies a prolonged period of biodegradation due to the activity of bacteria, causing oxidation of the organic molecules in bitumen, i.e.This conservation project is dedicated to the restoration of an amphora painted in the black figure technique by an unknown Etruscan master.It shows a rare depiction of an Etruscan chariot mounted by a charioteer holding the reins with one foot still resting on the ground.Here the typical Etruscan motif is not only the mantle of the charioteer, but above all the model of the chariot with the sinuous line of the handlebar.Similar artifacts have been found dating to the middle of the sixth century B. More ancient are the hundred or so fragments of pottery, bucchero and ceramics of various manufacture, which are in some cases painted and come from the the Regolini-Galassi tumulus complex in Cerveteri.

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